Two-choice operant models show resistance to non-specific side effects. Recently an auditory model was presented complementing a previously published visual disturbance model. These models show promise for specifically addressing special senses, avoiding motor and motivational bias
The 2013 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine jointly went to James E. Rothman, Randy W. Schekman and Thomas C. Südhof for their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells.
A timely start of preclinical assessment of drug abuse and dependence liability is essential to keep options open to redirect, deselect and characterize drug candidates. It's not just a matter of meeting regulatory demands and timelines but creating room for improvement and reducing late attrition.
A rat behavioral two-choice tinnitus model with resistance to non-auditory side effects is presented. Salicylic acid caused tinnitus-like effects. Intense sound caused tinnitus-like, Lidocaine non-reversible effects. By the design potential bias due to hearing impairment and hyperacusis is avoided.